take care of our bees (who knew you are supposed to rotate the top bars around?) and we think we have kept them well fed and happy. Our favorite book, which we refer to often, is “Top Bar Beekeeping” by Les Crowder.
All summer we have been on the lookout for native and purchased flowering plants that the bees would like, and avoiding plants that are poisonous to bees, such as azaleas and rhododendron. Unfortunately, there are quite a few buckeye trees around, but there are none on our property. The Buckeye tree pollen is mildly poisonous to adult honeybees, but it causes fatal wing deformity in the brood. There isn’t anything we can do about the trees surrounding our property because they are indigenous to our area, but what we can do is cultivate lots of safe and healthy plants for our bees. We found a beautiful flowering plant by the side of the road that was completely covered with honeybees, butterflies and bumblebees. Our son, Matthew, is a Forester and identified it as a medicinal plant (for humans) called Yerba Santa! We gathered some of the seed from the plant and hope they will germinate this coming spring so we can plant them in near the beehive.
We also planted a bush called Euonymus japonicus. We had one at our valley home that was absolutely mauled every spring and summer by honeybees. We planted the bush about 15 feet behind the hive so the bees will have a short commute. We also planted two lemon balm plants (Melissa officinalis) because we read somewhere that if you plant lemon balm near a beehive, the bees will never leave. After all, Melissa means “honeybee” in the Greek language! Even if that’s a wive’s tale, that’s okay, because I found that a sprig of lemon balm, a sprig of basil and a few stevia leaves in a gallon of water makes a wonderfully refreshing drink. We also planted a pot with spearmint.
Of course, next spring there will also be all our fruit and nut trees in bloom, along with the lavender and jasmine we have planted here and there around our new homestead. We hope to have happy, well fed bees that won’t need much supplemental feeding in the future.
We enjoy showing our bees to our family and friends also. When my sister visited our homestead, it was time to check on the bees and rotate any top bars that might need, well, rotating!
I let her put on my bee outfit and enjoyed watching her reaction as Ray lifted some of the bars for her to see the comb, brood, workers and (of course) the honey! I was truly surprised how brave she was. There she was, right in front of the hive, and she had no fear! I will admit, however, that sometimes the wonder of it all erases fear. Our grandchildren were a bit more timid, however, and chose to observe the hive at a fair distance. 🙂
It’s amazing how lucky we have been with our bees. After reading other blogs about honeybees and several books on backyard beekeeping, it seems we have done a lot of things right, but an equal number of things wrong! When we first installed our bees, we basically sat back and watched them fly in and out of their hive entrance, and after our second inspection to verify that the queen was laying eggs and comb was being made, we thought our work was pretty much done. Then we read in Les Crowder’s book that you have to check the hive every other week to make sure the bees weren’t cross-combing. Cross-combing? What’s that?
Cross combing is when the bees don’t make straight, vertical comb. It’s when the comb is rounded or crooked and runs into the next comb. It’s when your bees have run amuck.
After reading this we ran to our hive (well, maybe we didn’t actually run) to pull out some of the top bars and find out if our bees were behaving poorly. Nope. Thank goodness, our bees all passed Geometry 101 and their comb was straight, vertical and perfectly shaped. Every single one! Wahoo! Of course, that is what lead us to do a bit more reading on what else we were supposed to be doing.
Hmmm… Chapter 5 in “Top Bar Beekeeping” by Les Crowder… apparently if the bees think their home is too small, they will swarm in the early spring. Not a total disaster (not all of the workers leave, and usually a new queen has been coronated), but swarming is something most beekeepers like to avoid because the colony that is left after a swarm is usually small and weak. However it is possible for the hive to build back up, especially if there are still brood in the combs, the new queen is laying, and there is enough honey for back-up. But, again, it’s not what a beekeeper wants.
How do you avoid a swarm? Apparently you have to make sure the bees think they have plenty of room left in the hive for expansion. You do this by moving some of the top bars around, putting empty top bars between full ones, and making sure there are always a few empty top bars in the back.
So, that’s what we did. We moved some of the bars around, in a pattern suggested in Les Crowder’s book. But, while moving the bars around, Ray noticed that one bar had come apart and the weight of the honey in the comb had made it drop to the floor of the hive.
Darn. Shoot. Bad luck. Well, I guess all we could do was harvest that one.
Of course, I’m being facetious here. We were actually more than happy to get a sample of our honey! Besides, our Beekeeper and Master Gardner friend, Kim, said we should harvest some honey. Why? “Because”, she explained, “it’s like deadheading a rosebush. If you keep clipping off the spent roses, the plant will continue to make more roses. So if you harvest some honey, the bees will be stimulated to make more honey!”
My mom had given me some nice ice cream buckets, which I assumed were food grade, so we used a paint strainer and the bucket to separate the honey from the comb. I had to crush the comb a bit while it was in the paint strainer, but I was lucky that this comb only had raw and ripe honey, no brood. I would have felt bad if there was brood in it, but apparently there usually is, so I will have to get used to sacrificing a few brood to be able to harvest honey.
Since this comb had raw, unripe honey in it (honey that hasn’t been capped yet and therefore has more water in it), I knew we had to use it right away. Honey that hasn’t been capped is likely to ferment, which wouldn’t be so bad, because fermented honey is Mead! Although we do plan to make our own Mead next year, we decided to use our fresh honey instead drizzled on biscuits, French toast, waffles…
I may be prejudiced, but I think our honey was the best tasting ever! It was dark and fairly thick, and Master Gardner Kim informed us that it probably was cedar honey, which made sense! We have cedar trees on and around our homestead, and the dark color with a slight hint of “forest” in the honey led us to believe she was probably right. Although we harvested only one small comb, we got about ¾ pint of honey. It didn’t last very long 😉
During our observations of the hive, we have noticed the bees coming in with various colors of pollen. For a while in June, they all carried heavy bags of yellow pollen. A few weeks later the pollen was a darker orange. In August, we noticed the bees carrying an almost pure white pollen!
Then, it happened. While watching the bees coming and going from their hive entrance, observing the color of the pollen they were bringing in, I guess I got too close. I got stung. On my eyebrow.
Since I haven’t been stung by a honeybee in years, I didn’t know what my reaction was going to be. So, I ran into the trailer (screaming like a little girl) and took a Benadryl, an aspirin and put an ice pack on the sting. The truth is, it hurt. A lot! After about an hour, however, I knew I was probably not allergic to bee stings (I was still alive), and the pain started to fade from there. I think the anxiety of a possible allergic reaction may have exaggerated the pain. But the next morning, when I looked in the mirror, I saw quite a site! The entire area around my eye – the eyelid, my cheekbones, the inside of my nose and my crow’s feet – were all a bright pink color. Not just bright pink… iridescent bright pink! It looked like a four year old put some hot pink eyeshadow on me in the middle of the night! Disco Fever anyone? Every time Ray looked at me for the next couple of days, until the color faded, he would chuckle. So did I. It was really quite funny.
Up until I got the bee sting, I was becoming more and more comfortable around the bees. That’s probably why I got stung. I had become too complacent. I was foolishly standing less than two feet from the entrance to the hive without any protective gear on and no smoke. Also, I was aware that the hive had successfully fended off a few attacks by yellow jackets, and so were probably at high intruder alert. That bee sting was totally my own fault. Too bad a bee had to give her life because of my stupidity. Lesson learned.
So where are we now? It’s autumn here on the homestead and the days and nights are getting cooler. The bees are still coming and going, bringing back pollen and a deep reddish brackish color of pollen, which I actually think may be propolis. Propolis is used by the bees as a sort of glue to help shore up any holes in the hive, preparing for the winter cold.
We will probably open the hive only one or two more times before winter actually sets in. We plan to give them some sugar water during the winter just in case they didn’t get enough honey to last through until the first honey flow in the spring. So, there isn’t much more we can do at this point but wish them luck and pray that they make it through the winter.
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